High-sensitivity in various gyrator-based circuits with exceptional points of degeneracy
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 1 February 2022
Published online: 10 June 2022
Exceptional points of degeneracy (EPD) can enhance the sensitivity of circuits by orders of magnitude. We show various configurations of coupled LC resonators via a gyrator that support EPDs of second and third-order. Each resonator includes a capacitor and inductor with a positive or negative value, and the corresponding EPD frequency could be real or imaginary. When a perturbation occurs in the second-order EPD gyrator-based circuit, we show that there are two real-valued frequencies shifted from the EPD one, following a square root law. This is contrary to what happens in a Parity-Time (PT) symmetric circuits where the two perturbed resonances are complex valued. We show how to get a stable EPD by coupling two unstable resonators, how to get an unstable EPD with an imaginary frequency, and how to get an EPD with a real frequency using an asymmetric gyrator. The relevant Puiseux fractional power series expansion shows the EPD occurrence and the circuit's sensitivity to perturbations. Our findings pave the way for new types of high-sensitive devices that can be used to sense physical, chemical, or biological changes.
Key words: Coupled resonators / enhanced sensitivity / exceptional points of degeneracy (EPDs) / gyrator / perturbation theory
© K. Rouhi et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2022
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