How to achieve exceptional points in coupled resonators using a gyrator or PT-symmetry, and in a time-modulated single resonator: high sensitivity to perturbations★
1 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
* e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 25 February 2022
Published online: 1 July 2022
We study the rise of exceptional points of degeneracy (EPD) in various distinct circuit configurations such as gyrator-based coupled resonators, coupled resonators with PT-symmetry, and in a single resonator with a time-varying component. In particular, we analyze their high sensitivity to changes in resistance, capacitance, and inductance and show the high sensitivity of the resonance frequency to perturbations. We also investigate stability and instability conditions for these configurations; for example, the effect of losses in the gyrator-based circuit leads to instability, and it may break the symmetry in the PT-symmetry-based circuit, also resulting in instabilities. Instability in the PT-symmetry circuit is also generated by breaking PT-symmetry when one element (e.g., a capacitor) is perturbed due to sensing. We have turned this instability “inconvenience” to an advantage, and we investigate the effect of nonlinear gain in the PT-symmetry coupled-resonator circuit and how this leads to an oscillator with oscillation frequency very sensitive to perturbation. The circuits studied in this paper have the potential to lead the way for a more efficient generation of high-sensitivity sensors that can detect very small changes in chemical, biological, or physical quantities.
Key words: Coupled resonators / exceptional points of degeneracy (EPDs) / gyrator / perturbation theory / sensor / time-modulation
© A. Nikzamir et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2022
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