First ten years of active metamaterial structures with “negative” elements
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,
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Accepted: 27 June 2018
Published online: 8 October 2018
Almost ten years have passed since the first experimental attempts of enhancing functionality of radiofrequency metamaterials by embedding active circuits that mimic behavior of hypothetical negative capacitors, negative inductors and negative resistors. While negative capacitors and negative inductors can compensate for dispersive behavior of ordinary passive metamaterials and provide wide operational bandwidth, negative resistors can compensate for inherent losses. Here, the evolution of aforementioned research field, together with the most important theoretical and experimental results is reviewed. In addition, some very recent efforts that go beyond idealistic impedance negation and make use of inherent non-ideality, instability, and non-linearity of realistic devices, are highlighted. Finally, a very fundamental, but still unsolved issue of common theoretical framework that connects causality, stability, and non-linearity of networks with negative elements is stressed.
Key words: Active metamaterial / Non-Foster / Causality / Stability / Non-linearity
© S. Hrabar, published by EDP Sciences, 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.